[aka Northern Nambikwara, Mamainde, Northern Nambikuára]

Classification: Nambikwaran



Language metadata

Northern Nambikwara, Mamainde, Northern Nambikuára, Northern Nambikuaran, Kithāulhú, Northern Nambiquara


ISO 639-3


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There is uncertainty in the literature about the classification of Nambikwaran languages and which varieties may be separate languages or are only dialects of a single language. It is also difficult to determine how language variety names match similar names among the sources.
Campbell (2012:99) has 5 Nambikwaran languages. Lowe (1999:269): “Nambiquara family consists of three languages”: Southern Nambiquara dialect complex, Mamainde/Nakarothe, and Sabanes. Price (1978) has three branches, Northern Nambikwaran, Southern Nambikwaran, and Sabané. The Northern Nambikwaran members are: Mamaindê, Negarotê, Tawandê, Latundê, and Lakondê. The Southern branch is divided in four dialect groups: Manduca (with the variants Siwaisu, Hunkutesu, Niyahlosu); Campo (with Kithãulhu, Wakalitesu, Halotesu, Sawentesu); Guaporé (with Hahãintesu, Waikisu, Alãntesu, Wasusu); and Sararé (also called Katitãulhu).
Ethnologue (Lewis et al. 2016) has 6 languages: Sabanê [sae], Lakondê [lkd], Latundê [ltn], Mamaindé [wmd], Tawandê [xtw], and Nambikuára, Southern [nab].
Note that Negarotê has sometimes been considered an independent Nambikwaran language; however, Anonby and Eberhard (2008) found 90% intelligibility between Negarotê and Mamaindê, showing Negarotê is not a distinct language, but a variant of Mamaindê. (Anonby, Stan and David Eberhard. 2008. "A Survey of Three Northern Nambiquara Groups: The Mamaindê, Negarotê, and Latundê." SIL Electronic Survey Report 2008-21.)

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