[aka Kashuyana-Warikyana, Kaxuiana, Kaxuiâna]

Classification: Cariban


severely endangered

Language metadata

Kashuyana-Warikyana, Kaxuiana, Kaxuiâna, Kashuyana, Kashujana, Kachuana, Kaxuyâna, Kahyana, Kaxúyana, Katxúyana, Warikiana, Warikyana, Werikyana, Ingarïnyana, Ingarüna, Xikuyana, Txikuyana, Xikïyana, Txikïyana, Pauxi,

Cariban, Parukotoan

ISO 639-3


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"One dialect ... is spoken by people under 50 in multiple villages of the Parque do Tumucumaque, plus in at least two villages in their traditional homelands along an easterly tributary of the Trombetas named the Rio Cachorro (in Katxuyana, the /Katxuru/ River, hence the name Katxuu-yana 'people of the Katxuru'). The other is spoken by the elders (over 50) in these same villages, and by speakers of all ages in the two villages along the Nhamundá River ... self-identified speakers of Xikuyana and Katxuyana have both told me that there are differences between them: some members of the subordinate group, the Xikuyana, insist that their language is not mutually intelligible with Katxuyana, whereas the dominant group, the Katxuyana, describe Xikuyana was "the same Katxuyana, just pronounced a little more smoothly". In my own work with both groups, I was unable to identify any differences at all between the two, so although each labels a clear social construct, I do not consider them to be major dialects." (Spike Gildea, personal communication, October, 2014.)

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