[aka Qumanda, Northern Altai, Куванды]

Classification: Turkic



The Russian-Kumandin phrasebook was compiled on the basis of the dialect of the Kumandins who lived in the villages of Kubiya, Peshper, Shunarak, Egon and Aleshkino. At the same time, the compilers tried to bring the pronunciation of individual words and phrases as close as possible to colloquial speech. It is simplified to convey its forms through ordinary writing, without resorting to special transcription. Which, in turn, would make it inaccessible for mass use. The compilers also sought to unify the spelling of individual words. We will only point out that many residents of Soltonsky and Krasnogorsky districts of other places pronounce words in different ways. For example: py chak-shak-knife; pchak-pshan-hay. Of course, the language of the Kumandins belongs to the Turkic group of the Altai language family. According to the classification of Türkologists N. A. Baskakov A. Samoilovich, the Kumandy language is attributed to the East Uyghur branch of the Turkic languages. Academician S. E. Malov believed that the Kumandin language is independent. This is also due to historical reasons. They have been known since the ninth century since the formation of the Kimak state on the Irtysh under the name kumanku. In the late 9th - early 10th centuries, most of them left Altai to the southwest. Later they mixed with other peoples. In the Mongolian period, the remnants of the Kumanokypchak tribes, apparently, were driven from the southwestern outskirts of Altai to the territory of northeastern Altai, where they were found by the Russians in the 17th century. At this time, they settled in the upper reaches of the Ob, lived in the mouth of the Charysh and above, in the lower reaches of the Katun and along the Biya - to the mouth of the Swan. One of the first, among the Altai tribes, were colonized. Which also left certain imprints on their culture. At present, the number of Kumandins is unknown. They are settled throughout the Union. in the Altai Territory, most of them live in the city of Biysk, then in Gorno-Altaysk, in the Kytmanovsky, Soltonsky and Krasnogorsky Districts. Outside the region, they most compactly live in the Tashtagol district of the Kemerovo region. Appendix to the phrasebook compiled by F. A. Satlaev based on field materials collected by him in different years. The last two tales are published from N. A. Baskakov “Lect of the Kumandins” as illustrative material about the dialects of the Kumandins. Proverbs, sayings, riddles and songs of the Kumandins reflect their true life, family and marriage relations, manners and customs. That will allow the Russified Kumandins to get some idea of ​​the culture of their ancestors. F.A. SATLAYEV, Candidate of Historical Sciences

Igor Nikolsky


Jan. 1, 1990