濒危语言项目

为在全球范围内保护和记录语言提供支持的项目

濒危语言项目

关于濒危语言

影响语言活力的因素很多。随着代际传递的减少,语言会濒临灭绝(即一门语言不再是幼儿的第一语言)。随着老一辈的语言使用者去世,说这门语言的人会越来越少。

关于濒危语言

在主页http://www.endangeredlanguages.com右上方点击灰色的“创建帐号”字样,按照提示操作。

本网站的每种语言都有一个样品标签,您可以共享代表该语言的例子。这可以包括许多形式,如闲谈、教育视频 、文化相关的视频、录音、音乐、口语单词列表或书面文件。还有一个资源选项卡,您可以共享诸如某语言的语法、字典、或者关于该语言的文章的信息。

规则全文可 在此查看。您不应未经别人允许上传别人拥有的材料。您只应通过本网站共享适合公开网上共享的材料。

完全不会。您保留对您上传的所有材料的控制权,您可以随时编辑或删除这些材料。您也可以将之下载到你的电脑,例如,如果您丢了自己拷贝的信息。

Yes, material uploaded to this project will be stored using products with strong infrastructure in place, such as YouTube or Google Docs. It will be safely stored online for you to access, edit or download anytime for the foreseeable future.

本网站旨在公开分享材料。在网上公开分享语言材料意义重大。如果您希望能有一个私人的工作环境,邀请项目或社团成员,我们建议您访问 Google Sites或其它带有限制接入协议的网站。

任何由用户上传的内容的右侧都有“举报为不恰当内容”的选项,通过选择该选项可以举报该内容,并将它从页面上移除。

所有用户均可以上传内容或添加评论。您只需要一个Gmail邮箱地址,或与Google账号相关联的电子邮件地址就可能登陆本网站。您可以点击这里创建Google账号。

不需要。

您可以在任意时间访问已分享的内容和删除单个文件。您也可以登陆网站,点击右上角的用户名,然后选择删除账号这一选项,从而一次性移除您提交的所有材料。

如果您了解某一门语言,您可以分享此语言的字词短语表、语法信息、文件、链接、音频和视频,帮助记录这门语言。您也可以做出建议更新一门语言的相关数据。请点击这里来了解更多关于如何记录语言的信息。

Teaching and learning endangered languages is a crucial part of the revitalization process. ELP provides a space for users to browse and contribute resources (videos, documents, sound recordings, etc.) related to language learning and teaching, and to discuss their challenges and successes in language education. To see what others have contributed, or to upload your own materials to help others, visit the Language Education Resources area.

If you are interested in learning more about a specific language, you may also want to explore all the Resources available on that language, such as word lists or basic audio phrasebooks. To see what Resources are available for a language, click the "Resources" tab on that language's page. For example, if you wanted to begin learning Irish Gaelic, you might enjoy listening to some of the audio or video recordings available on the Irish Gaelic Resources page.

For discussion and news about teaching endangered languages, or if you have specific questions about how best to undertake education in your language, we also recommend the Resource Network for Linguistic Discovery.

有关语言多样性联盟

联盟是全球旨在加强并保护濒危语言的各组织所组成的联盟。在这一努力中,科技和合作起到了重大的作用。

我们非常希望您的组织能够加入到这一重要的项目之中。您可以创建账号,并选择代表您的组织创建一个账号。这样可以将您的组织加入到联盟成员中,且允许其他用户可以与您的组织相关联。请确认在创建账户时使用的是您所在组织的Gmail或是Google账号,而不是您私人的电子邮件地址。

当然可以!请 填写表格 告诉我们您的计划,我们会尽力提供帮助。

关于濒危语言

The language information included on the site is provided by the Catalogue of Endangered Languages (ELCat) project, at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. For more information about ELCat, please see About the Catalogue of Endangered Languages.

It is an unfortunate fact that for many of the world's endangered languages, very little information is available to researchers outside the speaker community. The Catalogue of Endangered Languages team has undertaken an intensive four-year search for the best available information on each language; however, in some cases, further information simply does not exist. If you have language information which is missing from the Catalogue, please contact us!

New information will be sought and existing information corrected to complete the fields of information on each language. Documentation and revitalization projects, organizations, and individuals in positions to know or be able to find out will be contacted for current information. Grammars, lexicons, and other sources on the languages will be consulted and evaluated, and on this basis the index of the documentation for the language will be calculated. At the end of its funded period, ELCat will still be maintained and updated by language researchers on a volunteer basis.

For information from the Catalogue of Endangered Languages, cite as:

Catalogue of Endangered Languages. 2017. University of Hawaii at Manoa. http://www.endangeredlanguages.com

For general information from a language entry (e.g. language names, classification, or vitality status), cite:

"LANGUAGE NAME." Catalogue of Endangered Languages. 2017. University of Hawaii at Manoa. DATE OF ACCESS. < FULL URL OF SPECIFIC LANGUAGE PAGE >

For example:

"Xipaya." Catalogue of Endangered Languages. 2017. University of Hawaii at Manoa. 三月. 25, 2017. http://www.endangeredlanguages.com/lang/1001

Almost all information in the Catalogue of Endangered Languages includes a citation of the original source which provided this data (e.g. journal article, book, personal communication, etc.). You can find citation information at the top of the "Language Information by Source" box on each language page; if you wish to reproduce data such as speaker numbers, you may cite the original source provided there.

Users are highly encouraged to suggest improvements to the Catalogue by clicking the "Suggest a Change" tab at the top of each language page, or by emailing us. All suggested changes will be verified for accuracy before changes to the Catalogue can be made.

查看濒危语言目录数据模板中包含的我们针对每种语言所收集的信息种类,但并不是每种信息均有数据。为了在网上提供这些信息,所提交的信息必须有准确的文献来源。

濒危语言目录的濒危语言收录条件是由美国国家科学基金会资助的国际研讨会“联合研究:濒危语言信息与框架项目”制定的。条件包括语言的活力信息,例如语言使用者的绝对数量;该语言是否为后代所继承;语言使用者人数是否在减少;该语言使用范围是否在缩小;该语言使用人数占整个族裔人口比例等等。按照这些条件判定为濒危的语言是否被收录进目录。

建议目录中加入某语言,请填写 语言建议表

您所建议的语言经过该语言使用地区的权威审核后,如果达不到该项目的收录标准,该语言则不会被收录。标准包括很多方面:比如该语言已经收录在另外一个主名录(principal name)中,它仅为一个大语种的分支(方言),或者该语言根据适用的标准并未达到濒危程度。如果一种语言尚未达到列入目录的标准,这是值得庆幸的事情,这说明该语言健康状况相对良好。

Unfortunately, there’s no easy answer. "Languages" and "dialects" are defined in a variety of different ways. The most common linguistic criterion for distinguishing a language from a dialect is Mutual intelligibility. If people from different regions speak somewhat differently but understand each other well, then they speak dialects of the same language. Nevertheless, this linguistic criterion is not the only one used to distinguish languages from dialects. Sometimes the decision rests on political and social factors. As Max Weinreich reported to have said, "a language is a dialect with an army and a navy," meaning the decision to call consider some entities as separate languages depends on non-linguistic factors. For example, speakers of Swedish and Norwegian understand each other reasonably well, but for political reasons they are considered separate languages. For the purposes of the Catalogue of Endangered Languages, funded by the National Science Foundation, we give priority to linguistic criteria, primarily mutual intelligibility, though the social and political factors are also important.
In some instances entities can be on the border between being quite different dialects of a single language and being quite closely related languages, and in these instances it can be difficult to determine the extent of mutual intelligibility, which may be partial, neither fully absent nor fully present. In such cases, opinions about whether things are merely dialects of one language or belong to different languages can vary. In such difficult cases, the Catalogue includes the entities in question and records the range of opinion involved.

如果是大家熟知的濒危方言,网站有所收录,其条目里还包括该种方言所属的语言。例如,Gta'语言中的平原方言和丘陵方言均列在Gta'语言一页。
如果无法判定各语言变体是不同语言还是某一种语言的方言,目录中各语言变体以单独条目出现,条目里指出各方的不同观点。

大多数被判定为近期丧失语言最后使用者的语言多半已经不被任何人使用。然而,也有可能突然找到一位使用者。因此,我们对这些语言有一些特殊的处理。所有这些语言均被收录在濒危语言目录中,同时收录的还有有关这些语言所公开的任何信息。有关这类语言目录,请参考文档中的表 1静默的语言

有些语言还没有出现在地图上,是因为研究小组尚未获取这些语言使用地区的可靠信息。如果您有可靠信息证实某种语言的使用地区,我们邀请您通过点击语言页面下方的“添加信息”按钮来分享您的信息。

Also, some languages are not readily visible on the map when first opened, but become visible when you zoom in on the map (clicking on the plus sign [+] in the upper right-hand corner of the map.

有必要列出某一种语言过去和现在的所有名称,同时标注存有异议的名称也很重要。这是因为:

  • 有时用户可能并不知道该语言的某一个名称不合宜,或者不清楚该语言的其他名称,因此无法查询到该语言。这些名称也需要列出来,但是要标明这些名称存有异议,这样用户可以更有效率地搜寻各种语言。同时,这样的标注也提醒用户某些名称不合宜。
  • 有的词汇被一部分(而不是全部)使用语言的人认为具有争议,或者仅被外界而不是团体成员认为具有争议
  • 在某些情况下,某种语言早期的名称在当时并没有贬义,只是后来变得不合宜了。

对目录信息增添或更改的建议信息需要得到证实;这由一个国际研究团队完成,是为了确保信息准确和学术诚信。在提交建议后,需要一天或几周时间来处理建议。但是请放心,即使有所延期,我们仍然十分期待处理您和别人的建议。

对数据库中内容添加或更改的建议未通过可能有几个原因。通常原因包括:

  • 相关性: 有些信息可能很有趣也很有价值,但是不符合目录中展示的信息类别。 目录中的信息主要是关于语言使用者的人数,场地,还有语言活跃度的信息。其他信息应当分享在 知识分享论坛中, 或是该语言的谷歌小组中,而不应在每个语言页面“添加信息”链接处提交。
  • 适当性: 这个建议的更改是否有任何对语言使用者或者语言使用者的文化有所不敬,是否在小组中成员的语言中存在异议?这样的更改不会在目录中有所体现。
  • 可靠性: 这条信息来源于何处?目录只能接受明确来自可靠资源的消息。您所给的信息来源越明确,您的建议才越容易受到采纳。
  • 信息不足: 在一些情况下,我们无法做出您建议的更改,因为您提供的信息不足。如果可以的话,请提供充足的信息,这样我们的研究小组才能证实的您建议。

如果您还有其他关于建议未能落实的问题,请通过电子邮箱feedback@endangeredlanguages.com与我们联络。